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Behavior: Anonymous Ally

The more money he made in the 1920s bull market, the more Wall Street
Analyst William Griffith Wilson hit the bottle. "Men of genius," he
assured his worried wife, "conceive their best projects when drunk." He
was right, though hardly in the sense he meant. When Wilson died last
week at 75, he left one of the finest projects that a drunk has ever
conceived. He was the famous "Bill W.," who sobered up and in 1935
co-founded Alcoholics Anonymous.

A gawky Vermonter, Wilson grew up with a crushing sense of inferiority.
Alcoholism ran in his family; he was physically weak and a target for
bullies. By sheer persistence, he became captain of his school baseball
team, played the violin well, and led the school orchestra. But his
feelings of inadequacy remained until as a World War I artillery
officer, he gulped his first drink.

Inspirational Teachings. As Wilson used to relate, "Down went that
strange barrier that had always stood between me and the people around
me. Here was the missing link." After the 1929 crash, Wilson tried to
forget his losses with numbing doses of bathtub gin and bootleg whisky.
His wife went to work to support him, and, as Wilson recalled, his
mental disintegration "proceeded rapidly and implacably." Injured after
an Armistice Day bender in 1934, he tried to heed the inspirational
teachings of the First Century Christian Fellowship (precursor of Moral
Re-Armament), but soon went on a three-day drunk that left him
shattered.

At a Manhattan hospital, Wilson grimly prayed for help. "Suddenly," he
related, "the room lit up with a great white light. I was caught up into
an ecstasy which there are no words to describe." After leaving the
hospital, Wilson tried to help other drunks achieve similar religious
experiences, but found that he also needed medical facts to crack their
tough egos. In 1935 he got the help he needed when he met "Dr. Bob,"
Akron Surgeon Robert H. Smith, a fellow Vermonter who had vainly tried
to control his own compulsive drinking. Together they founded Alcoholics
Anonymous.

For a time, Wilson had grandiose visions: "Chains of A.A. hospitals and
tons of free literature for suffering alkies." But when he sought
millions from John D. Rockefeller Jr., the philanthropist astutely
replied: "I think money will spoil this." As a result, A.A. was financed
by its own members. In dealing with each other or the public, they use
only their first names and initials. "Identification leads to power
drives," Wilson explained. "The thought of power is one reason we were
drunks in the first place."

A.A. shunned moralizing in favor of viewing alcoholism as an emotional
crutch combined with a physical allergy to liquor. Thus, A.A.'s methods
leaned more heavily on psychology than physiology. Recognizing that
alcoholics must not merely control their consumption but curb it
entirely, A.A. members listened to each other's stories and helped one
another resist the temptation to drink. But they never forgot that the
major effort to abstain must be made by the drinker himself. 'The only
requirement for A.A. membership," according to an organization
tradition, "is a sincere desire to stop drinking."

Wilson was A.A.'s most active member. Even after his retirement in 1962
he remained in touch, addressing the organization's banquet each fall
and, despite illness, struggling from a wheelchair to speak to its
convention in Miami last July. He took immense pride in his
accomplishment, and with good reason. A.A. now has 475,000 members in
16,000 groups in the U.S. as well as 90 foreign countries. A.A. strategy
has been copied by organizations like Synanon and others working on
group therapy for all kinds of troubled people, including ex-convicts.
It obviously works. Today 60% of A.A. members get on the wagon and stay
on it.

Source: Time, February 8, 1971

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